ISSUE: 3/2021

  • Volume 25
  • Number 3
  • 2021


Studia Europejskie –
Studies in European Affairs

ISSN: 1428-149X
e-ISSN: 2719-3780

Ccbync License


Articles published in the journal are under a Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial – No Derivatives 4.0 International License

The Albanian Migration to Greece and the Refugee Crisis of 2015 from the Greek Perspective


Although migration has always been a timeless and volatile phenomenon, modern transnational movements of people have become a dominant topic of interest by constantly acquiring new characteristics that modify their evolutionary process. Europe is a geographical area that has been significantly affected by recent changes as a result of the evolution of migration flows of the last 30 years. The urgent need to initially understand and later implement evidence-based policies in order to sufficiently manage the migration phenomenon can be considered as the basic spark that led to the scientific blast of the 21st century, focusing on the gradual development of migration studies. One of the most notable efforts of the scientific community was the use of the comparison method to examine, understand, and in some cases even forecast the characteristics of specific migration case studies, thereby forming the backbone of comparative migration research in general. Greece, due to its geographical position, has been unintentionally positioned, many times, inside the so called “ring of fire”, as result of multiple factors and disastrous events that evolved mainly in its neighbouring countries, forcing massive, irregular migration flows to its external borders. The outbreak of the Albanian exodus in the early 1990s and the recent refugee flows of 2015 can be described as two major migration crises that have occurred in Greek’s contemporary history, making their comparison a fruitful example of the potential capabilities of the above-mentioned method, contributing to a holistic study of the migration phenomenon in Greece.


Aspasios D., Metanastefsi kai Asphalia. I Exelixi ton Kharaktiristikon ton Asimmetron Apilon stin Ellada (Μετανάστευση και Ασφάλεια. Η Εξέλιξη των Χαρακτηριστικών των Ασύμμετρων Απειλών στην Ελλάδα), University of Macedonia Press, Thessaloniki 2020.

Aspasios D., The “Collateral Damage” of Irregular Migration in the European Union, “European Police Science and Research Bulletin”, no. 12/ Summer 2015.

Aspasios D., The Changing Characteristics and the Economic Consequences of Migration from the Balkan Countries to Greece. The Case of Albanians, Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, University of Macedonia, Department of Balkan, Slavic and Eastern Studies, Thessaloniki 2014.

Baldwin-Edwards M., Statistical Data on Immigrants in Greece. An Analytic Study of Available Data and Recommendations for Conformity with European Union Standards, Migration Policy Institute (IMEPO), Athens 2004.

Bauer T., Lofstorm M., Zimmermann K., Immigration Policy, Assimilation of Immigrants and Natives’ Sentiments Towards Immigrants: Evidence from 12 OECD Countries, “Swedish Economic Policy Review”, no. 7(2)/2000, Mobility and Flexibility of Labor Markets, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

Bigo D., Security and Immigration. Towards a Critique of the Governmentality of Unease, “Alternatives”, no. 27 (Special Issue) 2002, DOI: https://doi. org/10.1177/03043754020270S105.

Bloemraad I., The Promise and Pitfalls of Comparative Research Design in the Study of Migration, “Migration Studies”, no. 1(1)2013, DOI: https://

Buzan B., Waever O., Wilde J., Security. A New Framework for Analysis, Lynne Rienner Publishers, Colorado 1998.

Collier D., The Comparative Method, in: Political Science: The State of the Discipline II, ed. A.W. Finifter, Washington, D.C. 1993.

Daskalaki H., et al., Criminals and Victims in the Doorstep of 21st Century, “National Centre for Social Research EKKE”, Athens 2000.

De Nardis F., The Logical Structures of Comparison. Its Forms, Styles, Problems, and the Role of History in Social and Political Research, “The Open Journal of Socio-political Studies”, no. 7(3) 2014.

De Zwager N., et al., Competing for Remittances. Project of the Albanian Government Managed in Cooperation with IOM, IOM, Tirana 2005.

Eckstein H., Division and Cohesion in Democracy. A Study of Norway, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J. 1966.

European Border and Coast Guard Agency, Annual Risk Analysis 2017. European Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex), Frontex Risk Analysis Unit, Warsaw 2017.

European Commission, Eurobarometer, about/eurobarometer (access 15.03.2021).

European Commission, Special Eurobarometer 371/November 2011. Internal Security, from Public Opinion, publicopinion/index.cfm/Survey/getSurveyDetail/instruments/SPECIAL/surveyKy/998/p/3 (access 15.11.2018).

European Commission, Special Eurobarometer 432/April 2015: Europeans’ Attitudes Towards Security, from Public Opinion, commfrontoffice/publicopinion/index.cfm/Survey/getSurveyDetail/ instruments/SPECIAL/surveyKy/2085 (access 15.11.2018).

European Commission, Special Eurobarometer 469/April 2018: Integration of Immigrants in the European Union, from Public Opinion, https:// getSurveyDetail/instruments/SPECIAL/surveyKy/2169 (access 15.11.2018).

Fakiolas R., Migration and Unregistered Labour in Greek Economy, in: Eldorado or Fortress? Migration in Southern Europe, eds. K. Russell, G. Lazaridis, C. Tsardanidis, New York 2000, DOI: https://doi. org/10.1057/9780333982525_3.

Fitzgerald D., A Comparativist Manifesto for International Migration Studies, “Ethic and Racial Studies”, no. 35(10) 2012, DOI: 080/01419870.2012.659269.

Geddes A., The Politics of Migration and Immigration in Europe, Sage Publications, London 2003, DOI:

International Organization for Migration, World Migration Report 2018, International Organization for Migration, The UN Migration Agency, Geneva 2017.

Karydis B., Metanastefsi kai Englima ti Dekaetia tou 90 stin Ellada (Μετανάστευση και Έγκλημα τη Δεκαετία του 90 στην Ελλάδα), in: Law and Social-Politics Perspectives of Migration in Greece, eds. G. Amitis, G. Laxaridis, Papazisis Publications, Athens 2001.

Keith M., From Punishment to Discipline? Racism, Racialization and the Policing of Social Control, in: Racism, the City and State, eds. M. Cross, M. Keith, London 1993.

Klemencic M., Migrations in History, in: Immigration and Emigration in Historical Perspective, ed. A.K. Isaacs, Pisa 2007.

Mahoney J., Rueschemeyer D., Comparative Historical Analysis: Achievements and Agendas, in: Comparative Historical Analysis in the Social Sciences, eds. J. Mahoney, D. Rueschemeyer, Cambridge, U.K. 2003, DOI:

Ministry of Public Order and Protection of the Civilian, The Official Site of the Hellenic Parliament (1.06.2013), http://www.Hellenicparliament. Gr/ (access 12.11.2013).

Nelken D., Globalization, Crime and Comparative Criminal Justice, in: A Handbook of Comparative Social Policy, ed. P. Kennett, Chelternham, U.K. and Northampton, U.S.A. 2013.

Nikas C., Aspasios D., The Changing Characteristics and the Maturity of Albanian Emigration to Greece, “Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies”, no. 13(3) 2011, DOI: .593336.

Ragin C.C., Comparative Sociology and the Comparative Method, in: Comparative Sociological Research in the 1960s and 1970s, eds. M.J. Armer, R.M. Marsh, Leiden 1982.

Ragin C., Zaret D., Theory and Method in Comparative Research: Two Strategies, “Social Forces”, no. 61(3)1983, DOI: https://doi. org/10.2307/2578132.

Rumbaut R., Ewing W., The Myth of Immigrant Criminality and the Paradox of Assimilation: Incarceration Rates Among Native and Foreign-Born Men, “American Immigration Law Foundation-Immigration Policy Center”, Washington D.C. 2007.

Schmitter P.C., Comparative Politics. in The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World, Oxford University Press, New York 1993.

Smelser N.J., Comparative Methods in the Social Sciences, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs 1976. Stanfi eld II J.H., Epistemological Considerations, in: Race and Ethnicity, in: Research Methods, eds. J.H. Stanfield II, R.M. Dennis, London, New Delhi 1993.

Storbeck J., Confronting Terrorism, in: The Club De Madrid Series on Democracy and Terrorism, ed. P. Neumann, The International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security, Volume II/8–11 March 2005.

The Migrants’ Files (June 2016), http://www.themigrantsfi (access 20.03.2018). The United Nations Refugee Agency, Desperate Journeys. Refugee and Migrants Arriving in Europe at the Europe’s Borders (January– December 2018), The United Nations Refugee Agency, New York 2019.

United for Intercultural Action, The Fatal Realities of Fortress Europe, from United for Intercultural Action. European Network Against Nationalism, Racism, Fascism and in Support of Migrants and Refugees (November 2012), (access 15.11.2015).

United Nations, Global Trends. Forced Displacement in 2017.

United Nations, The UN Refugee Agency. United High Commissioner for Refugees, Geneva 2018.

United Nations, International Migration Report 2017: Highlights. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations, New York 2017.

United Nations Refugee Agency, UNCHR Figures at a Glance. Statistical Yearbooks, from The United Nations Refugee Agency 2018, https:// gures-at-a-glance.html (access 15.11.2018).

Van Heuveln B., A Preferred Treatment of Mill’s Method. Some Misinterpretations by Modern Textbooks, “Informal Logic”, no. 20(1)/2000, DOI:

Language: English

Pages: 115-135

How to Cite:


Nikas, C. and Aspasios, D. (2021) "The Albanian Migration to Greece and the Refugee Crisis of 2015 from the Greek Perspective". Studia Europejskie – Studies in European Affairs, 3/2021, pp. 115-135. DOI: 10.33067/SE.3.2021.7