ISSUE: 4/2023

  • Volume 27
  • Number 4
  • 2023


Studia Europejskie –
Studies in European Affairs

ISSN: 1428-149X
e-ISSN: 2719-3780

Ccbync License


Articles published in the journal are under a Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial – No Derivatives 4.0 International License

From Transaction to Transformation: Explaining the Leadership Shift on EU Sanctions Policy Against Russia


The article examines the leadership shift toward the EU sanctions policy against Russia in context of ongoing reconsideration of status quo that was caused by full-scale Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. The author draws attention to the transformation of the EU political leadership and their vision on the matter of foreign policy-making as a response to Russian aggression. Particular focus is put on the comparative analysis of competition outcomes between transactional and transformational viewpoints on sanction policy against Russia in years 2014–2021 and since February 2022.


Bass, B.M. (1985) Leadership and Performance beyond Expectations. New York: Free Press.
Burns, J. MacGregor (1978) Leadership. New York: Harper and Row.
Burns, J. MacGregor (2003) Transforming Leadership: A new Pursuit of Happiness. New York: Grove Press.
Donahue, P. and Delfs, A. (2021) “Scholz Proposes New EU Ostpolitik to Ease Tensions With Russia”, Bloomberg. Available at: (Access 7.09.2023).
Drzewicki, A. (2019) „Problem NATO w relacjach niemiecko-ukraińskich w XXI wieku. Zarys zagadnienia”, Roczniki Nauk Społecznych. Vol. 11(47), pp. 53–78.
European Council (N.D.) How and when the EU adopts sanctions. Available at: (Access 20.01.2023).
European Council conclusions. 24.02.2022. Available at: (Access 7.09.2023).
Forsberg, T. (2016) „From Ostpolitik to frostpolitik? Merkel, Putin and German foreign policy towards Russia”, International Affairs. Vol. 92(1), pp. 21–42.
French Ministry of Defence (2013) French White Paper on Defence and National Security.
Helnarska, K. (2015) „Polityka zagraniczna Francji wobec Rosji w sektorze energetycznym”, Nowa Polityka Wschodnia. Vol. 2(9), pp. 66–84.
Hutchison, E. (2016) Affective Communities in World Politics: Collective Emotions after Trauma. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kanter, J. (2014) “EU meets to consider more sanctions on Russia”, The New York Times. Available at: (Access 7.09.2023).
Khudoliy, A. and Zheltovskyy, V. (2023) „Rhetorical argumentation as a public action: the case of Volodymyr Zelenskyy’s presidential rhetoric”, Online Journal Modelling The New Europe. Vol. 42, pp. 4–21. DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2023.42.01.
Kwiatkowska-Drożdż, A. and Popławski, K. (2014) “The German reaction to the Russian-Ukrainian conflict – shock and disbelief”, Centre for Eastern Studies. Vol. 132. Available at: (Access 7.09.2023).
Macron, E. (2022) Speech by president Macron on European Political Community. Available at: (Access 7.09.2023).
Maurer, H., Whitman, R. and Wright, N. (2023) „The EU and the invasion of Ukraine: a collective responsibility to act?”, International Affairs. Vol. 99(1).
Menkiszak, M. (2021) Mów do mnie jeszcze. Rosja wobec inicjatyw détente Macrona. Punkt widzenia. Warsaw: Ośrodek Studiów Wschodnich im. Marka Karpia.
Olsen, K.B. and Fasterkjær, K.S. (2022) “Strict and Uniform. Improving EU Sanctions Enforcement”, DGAP Policy Brief 29. Available at: (Access 7.09.2023).
Portela, C., Pospieszna, P., Skrzypczyńska, J., and Walentek, D. (2021) “Consensus against all odds: explaining the persistence of EU sanctions on Russia”, Journal of European Integration. Vol. 43(6), pp. 683–699.
Rácz, A. (2022) “Germany’s shifting policy towards Russia: The sudden end of Ostpolitik”, FIIA Briefing Paper. Vol. 335, pp. 1–7.
Secrieru, S. (2015) Russia under Sanctions: Assessing the Damage, Scrutinising Adaptation and Evasion. Warsaw: The Polish Institute of International Affairs.
Stadler, R. (2015) “Genscher fordert Neuanfang mit Putin.” Süddeutsche Zeitung. Available at: (Access 7.09.2023).
Tosiek, P. (2020) „The Prospects for Institutional Reforms of the European Union: a Liberal Intergovernmentalist Perspective”, Srpska Politička Misao. Vol. 27(68), pp. 141–163. DOI: 10.22182/spm.6822020.6.
YouGov (2014) Eurotrack Survey Results. Available at: (Access 7.09.2023).
Zheltovskyy, V. (2020) „European integration processes in post-euromaidan Ukraine: in search for scenarios”, Online Journal Modelling the New Europe. No. 32, pp. 72–92. DOI: 10.24193/OJMNE.2020.32.05.
Zheltovskyy, V. (2022) “The European Parliament as Transformational Actor toward the Reconsideration of the EU Eastern Policy”, Politics in Central Europe. Vol. 18(4), pp. 661–679. DOI: 10.2478/pce-2022-0027.

Language: English

Pages: 27-40

How to Cite:


Zheltovskyy, V. (2023) "From Transaction to Transformation: Explaining the Leadership Shift on EU Sanctions Policy Against Russia". Studia Europejskie – Studies in European Affairs, 4/2023, pp. 27-40. DOI: 10.33067/SE.4.2023.2