ISSUE: 1/2019

  • Volume 23
  • Number 1
  • 2019


Studia Europejskie –
Studies in European Affairs

ISSN: 1428-149X
e-ISSN: 2719-3780

Ccbync License


Articles published in the journal are under a Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial – No Derivatives 4.0 International License

Transatlantic “Othering”: European External Action Identity


Foreign policy is not only a reaction to the world as it is, but it also attempts to build a world as it should be. The European Union, being an actor on the international scene, grounds its external action in conceptions of the necessity of multilateralism and in building postmodern (postWestphalian) notions ofstate sovereignty. These elements are an inherent part of the Union’s “foreign policy/identity nexus”. The identity is reinforced by signifi cant “Others”, who do not share the EU’s view of the ideal world order. The Donald Trump administration’s reluctance and even repudiation of multilateral solutions is a challenge for the operationalization of the EU’s “foreign policy/identity nexus” and thus the US is currently in the position of the Union’s constitutive “Other”. However, while we would expect that this development would reinforce the EU’s external action identity, the Trump presidency has at the same time empowered antiglobalist and sovereigntist forces in Europe, which will drive wedges into EU foreign policy and cause further incoherence, especially along the new/old member state divide


Ash T.G., The Peril of Too Much Power, “New York Times”, 9 April 2002,

Baker P., How Trump’s Election Shook Obama: ‘What if We Were Wrong?’, “The New York Times”, May 30, 2018,

Benner T., Germany Can Protect the Liberal Order: Damage Control After Trump’s Election, “Foreign Affairs”, November 16, 2016,

Blair T., Doctrine of International Community, Speech in Chicago, April 22, 1999,

Bukh A., Japan’s National Identity and Foreign Policy, Routledge, New York NY 2010,

Bulletin of the European Communities. December 1973, No 12. Luxembourg: Office for official publications of the European Communities. “Declaration on European Identity”, pp. 118–122.

Campbell D., Writing Security: United States Foreign Policy and the Politics of Identity.

Chan G., Capturing China’s International Identity: Social Evolution and Its Missing Links, “The Chinese Journal of International Politics”, no. 7(2)/2014, pp. 261–281.

Charles Michel plaide pour un ordre mondial multilateral, La Province, September 27, 2018,

Council Common Position 2003/444/CFSP, 16 June 2003 (OJ L 150/67).

Dempsey J., Judy Asks: Can Europe Defend Multilateralism?, “Carnegie Europe”, May 17, 2018,

Der Derian J., Shapiro M., International/intertextual relations: postmodern readings of world politics, Lexington Books, Lexington MD 1989.

Diez T., Constructing the Self and Changing Others: Reconsidering ‘Normative Power Europe’, “Millennium: Journal of International Studies”, no. 33(3)/2005, pp. 615–636.

Dworkin A., Leonard M., “Can Europe Save the World Order?”, Policy Brief, European Council on Foreign Relations, May 24, 2018,

Embassy of France in Washington D.C., “French President Emmanuel Macron addresses U.S. Congress”, Washington, D.C., April 25, 2018,

Fischer J., From Confederacy to Federation – Thoughts on the finality of European integration, Speech at the Humboldt University in Berlin, 12 May 2000,

Gorondi P., Hungary’s Orban praises Trump’s ‘end of multilateralism’, “Associated Press”, January 23, 2017,

Gowan R., Jones B., Barack Obama as Quiet International Reformer, Brookings Institution, September 21, 2009,

Hamilton D.S., Trump’s Jacksonian Foreign Policy and its Implications for European Security, The Swedish Institute of International Affairs, 2017.

Hebel K., Lenz T., The identity/policy nexus in European foreign policy, “Journal of European Public Policy”, no. 23(4)/2016, pp. 473–491.

Kagan R., Power and Weakness, “Policy Review”, no. 113/2002, pp. 3–28.

Maas H., Making plans for a new world order, Handelsblatt, August 22, 2018, europe956306.

Manners I., Normative Power Europe: A Contradiction in Terms?, “Journal of Common Market Studies”, no. 40(2)/2002, pp. 235–258.

Mead W.R., A Special Providence: American Foreign Policy and How It Changed the World, Routledge, New York 2002.

Nation Writ Large: Foreign Policy Problems Before the European Communities, eds. M. Kohnstamm, W. Hager, Macmillan, London 1973.

Nau H., At Home Abroad: Identity and Power in American Foreign Policy, Cornell University Press, Ithaca 2002.

Neumann I.B., Uses of the other: “The East” in European identity formation, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis MN 1999.

Persson A., The EU and the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict 1971–2013: In Pursuit of a Just Peace, Lexington Books, Lanham 2015.

POLITICO, Full text: Trump’s 2018 UN speech transcript, September 25, 2018,

Reading Eagle, In his own words: Donald Trump in Hershey, December 16, 2016,

Remarks by Andrzej Duda to the 73rd Session of the United Nations General Assembly, New York, 26 September, 2018,

Remarks of President Donald J. Trump – As Prepared For Delivery, Inaugural Address, January 20, 2017, Washington, D.C.,

Scheipers S., Sicurelli D., Normative Power Europe: A Credible Utopia?, “Journal of Common Market Studies”, no. 45(2)/2007, pp. 435–457.

Secretary of State Rex Tillerson addresses State Department employees, May 3, 2017, department-employees.

Shared Vision, Common Action: A Stronger Europe, A Global Strategy for the European Union’s Foreign and Security Policy, June 2016,

Smith T., America’s Mission: The United States and the Worldwide Struggle for Democracy – Expanded Edition, Princeton University Press, Princeton 2012,

Solana J., Securing Peace in Europe, Speech from Munster November 12, 1998,

The Culture of National Security: Norms and Identity in World Politics, ed. P.J. Katzenstein, Columbia University Press, New York 1996.Studia Europejskie – Studies in European Affairs, 1/2019

The European External Action Service and National Foreign Ministries: Conver gence or Divergence?, eds. R. Balfour, C. Carta, K. Raik, Ashgate, Farnham 2015.

The Future of Transatlantic Relations: Perceptions, Policy and Practice, eds. A.M. Dorman, J.P. Kaufman, Stanford University Press, Stanford CA 2010. The New York Times, Transcript: Donald Trump’s Foreign Policy Speech,April 27, 2016.

Wendt A., Social Theory of International Politics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1999,

Language: English

Pages: 27-42

How to Cite:


Hornát, J. (2019) "Transatlantic “Othering”: European External Action Identity". Studia Europejskie – Studies in European Affairs, 1/2019, pp. 27-42. DOI: 10.33067/SE.1.2019.02