ISSUE: 4/2016

  • Volume 80
  • Number 4
  • 2016


Studia Europejskie –
Studies in European Affairs

ISSN: 1428-149X
e-ISSN: 2719-3780

Ccbync License


Articles published in the journal are under a Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial – No Derivatives 4.0 International License

Demokracja po turecku

Democracy in Turkish Style

  • Alexander Gieysztor Academy of Humanities


The text is an attempt to present the democratization’s process of the Republic of Turkey. The Republic was proclaimed in 1923. In the introduction the authors recalled an earlier period, namely the second half of XIXth century, when in the Ottoman Empire had occured the ideas of constitutional order (1876). The Empire had been looking for ways and means to join the modern world following earlier examples of European monarchies.The next period- the fi rst half of XXth century – was marked by the Republic of Turkey.There are striking similarities between emerging the Republic of Turkey and the Second Polish Republic. The emergences not only took place at the same time but also had been driven by similar factors and processes. In the both cases countries were led by great personalities, who had not belonged to the core nations, which they headed to democracy. The both leaders had to face powers willing to destroy the young democracies and unfriendly attitudes of the Western powers. They both also „miraculously” saved their countries when enemies’ troops were close to the capitals. After the World War II our ways to democracy were different. Today, however, we can see that the ways led in the same direction and they were infl uenced by similar circumstances. Perhaps these circumstances have caused that the political developments in both countries are almost identical.

1. The both above mentioned leaders at the beginning of the last century made coup d’etat by military force.
2. In Poland, after WWII politicians had been under the supervision of „brotherly neighbor”. In Turkey the supervision was performed by the military. Perhaps it created longing for a new leader.
3. In both countries the roles of religion and its institutions were marginalized.

Perhaps this stimulated desire for a chief motivated by the faith. Perhaps it is not a coincidence that both Poland and Turkey are looked upon by the West as countries leading in democratic transformations in their respective regions, which for obscure reasons have started to move towards an authoritarian rule. In both cases foreign observers talk about the lack of understanding of the essence of democracy, which is a consensus by the societies as well as by the ruling elites. In each state power is exercised by a single party of chieftain character and the permanent expansion of power at the expence of democratic institutions has been justified as the will of nation as a whole.


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Language: Polish

Pages: 205-232

How to Cite:


Chmielowska, D. and Sobczak, M. (2016) "Demokracja po turecku". Studia Europejskie – Studies in European Affairs, 4/2016, pp. 205-232.