ISSUE: 1/2021

  • Volume 25
  • Number 1
  • 2021


Studia Europejskie –
Studies in European Affairs

ISSN: 1428-149X
e-ISSN: 2719-3780

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Articles published in the journal are under a Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial – No Derivatives 4.0 International License

Citizenship in Europe: The Main Stages of Development of the Idea and Institution


This paper identifies and synthetically demonstrates the most important steps and changes in the evolution of the idea and institution of citizenship in Europe over more than two thousand years. Citizenship is one of the essential categories defining human status. From a historical perspective, the idea of citizenship in Europe is in a state of constant evolution. Therefore, the essence of the institution of citizenship and its acquisition criteria are continually being transformed. Today’s comprehension of citizenship is different from understanding citizenship in Europe in earlier epochs of history. In some of them, the concept of citizenship existed only in the realm of ideas. In others, the idea materialised, and membership in the state (or city) and civic rights and obligations found a formal, legal expression. The formation of the idea and institution of citizenship is a long and multi-phase process.


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Language: English

Pages: 7-31

How to Cite:


Trzciński, K. (2021) "Citizenship in Europe: The Main Stages of Development of the Idea and Institution". Studia Europejskie – Studies in European Affairs, 1/2021, pp. 7-31. DOI: 10.33067/SE.1.2021.1